Archive for the 'PopSci' Category

What Happens When a Superstorm Hits D.C.?

September 28, 2017

What Happens When a #Superstorm Hits DC?
http://www.RollingStone.com/politics/news/what-happens-when-a-superstorm-hits-dc-w504341Storms estimated at 1/100yr in ’50 now could be 1/3yr. Are coastal areas prepared?

QT:{{”
“A report compiled in part by scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and published in 2013 in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, included a study that found that increases in sea-level rise related to climate change have
significantly increased the probability of a Sandy-level flood as compared to 1950. … Another paper, published in 2012 in the journal Nature Climate Change, determined that by the end of the century what is presently considered a 100-year storm-surge flood in New York could actually be occurring as frequently as once every three years. … “Other nations are well aware of this changed risk regime,…In Britain, the Thames Barrier, completed in 1982, presently protects London against a one-in-1,000-year flood, … The Dutch design levees and regulations to protect their cities against a one-in-10,000-year flood, and are considering fixes that would ensure protection against a one-in-100,000-year flood.
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Naked mole rats: Can they help us cure cancer? – Slate Magazine

July 31, 2017

Naked mole rats: Can they help..cure cancer?
http://www.Slate.com/articles/health_and_science/the_mouse_trap/2011/11/naked_mole_rats_can_they_help_us_cure_cancer_.html Live >6x longer than C57BL/6 & have “insectile” queen-domimated society

Amazon.com: Brain Myths Exploded: Lessons from Neuroscience (Audible Audio Edition): The Great Courses, Professor Indre Viskontas, The Great Courses: Baby

July 4, 2017

https://linkstream2.gerstein.info/tag/brainmyths0mg/

https://www.amazon.com/Brain-Myths-Exploded-Lessons-Neuroscience/dp/B01MUA54I0

You Look Familiar. Now Scientists Know Why.

June 13, 2017

You Look Familiar. Now Scientists Know Why
https://www.NYTmes.com/2017/06/01/science/facial-recognition-brain-neurons.html #Privacy implications: determining whether a suspect recognizes a face

QT:{{”

“One day, the authors suggested, it might even be possible to render a face seen by, say, a crime witness just by analyzing his brain activity.

“Cracking the code for faces would definitely be a big deal,” said Brad Duchaine, an expert on face recognition at Dartmouth.

Human and monkey brains have evolved dedicated systems for recognizing faces, presumably because, as social animals, survival depends on identifying members of one’s own social group and distinguishing them from strangers.”
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Mind the gaps: The holes in your brain that make you smart

June 10, 2017

Mind the gaps: The holes in your brain…make you smart
https://www.NewScientist.com/article/mg23331180-300-mind-the-gaps-the-holes-in-your-brain-that-make-you-smart/ Contrasts connectivity from graphs vs large-scale topology

Vitamin D on Trial | The Scientist

June 1, 2017

#VitaminD on Trial
http://the-Scientist.com/2012/03/01/vitamin-d-on-trial Interesting mail the med. trial where participants aren’t explicitly checked for compliance

QT:{{”

“Once a month for the next 5 years, 20,000 people across the United States will find a package containing 62 pills in their mailboxes. As participants in a clinical trial, the recipients agreed to swallow two of the pills daily. But inevitably as the years pass, some pill packets will become buried under a stack of letters, or forgotten in a drawer. After all, these pills contain only vitamin D, fish oil, or an inert placebo—a person doesn’t need them to make it through the day. Plus, no one monitors who takes the pills daily and who does not.”

….

Scientists critical of the VITAL study question whether the daily dose of 2,000 IU is enough to distinguish the treatment group from the controls. If this were a drug trial, the placebo group would go without the drug completely. But it’s unethical to ask anyone to go without vitamin D. Doctors inform all participants that they can take up to 800 IU of vitamin D daily (the national recommendation for people over 70 years old) in addition to the pills they receive in the mail. If they do, the control group will sustain more than adequate levels. But some participants might decide to break the rules and head to the nearest corner store for high-dose supplements after being told that vitamin D may help prevent cancer and other diseases. And of course, many participants won’t follow through with taking the pills they’ve been sent in the mail. “You hope drop-ins and drop-outs will be equal on both sides, but they may not be,” warns biostatistician Gary Cutter at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

A higher dose of vitamin D would widen the gap between the treatment and the control group, but Manson isn’t swayed. She says 2,000 IU will lift the treatment arm well above the level suggested to help protect against nonskeletal diseases, while she expects the controls to stabilize at levels sufficient for healthy bones. “Sure, we could have tested higher doses, but then right off the bat, we might have had safety issues,” Manson says.

Nonetheless, in other disease-prevention trials, investigators are gunning for better compliance and a fighting chance of showing an effect by doling out large, periodic doses of vitamin D. In the United Kingdom, a trial looking at the effect of vitamin D on respiratory infections (including the flu) is giving participants 120,000 IU of the vitamin every 2 months. And participants in the treatment arm of a vitamin D trial for type 2 diabetes prevention take an average dose of 89,684 IU once per week.
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Scientists are cracking the code of when genetic variants matter

April 2, 2017

Cracking the code of when #genetic variants matter, by @CarlZimmer https://www.StatNews.com/2016/08/17/genetic-variants-ex-ac-sequence/ Underscores need for realistic guidelines on risk

Are You My Cousin?

March 20, 2017

Are You My Cousin?
http://www.NYTimes.com/2014/02/01/opinion/sunday/are-you-my-cousin.html Combination of noisy crowd-sourced #ancestry & @23andMe linkages may connect everyone in a tree

QT:{{”
“The farther you go back, the more quantum it gets. According to Geni, my 97th great-grandfather is King David from the Bible. So what are the chances that I’m actually a direct descendant of the Goliath slayer? Count me a highly doubting Thomas. But it’s still fun to dive into the research and try to verify it.

In addition to using crowd-sourced trees, I’m trying to build my family list with genetic testing. I recently sent my saliva off to 23andMe (the F.D.A. has suspended the health-related part of 23andMe, but the ancestry service remains open). The result? I found more than a thousand fellow spitters who share enough genetic material that 23andMe says we are probable cousins. One such distant cousin: my wife. This was a tad jarring. Not to mention that it set off an avalanche of bad inbreeding and hillbilly jokes from friends. But the truth is, my wife and I aren’t unusual.
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pseudogenes that might have saved us !

March 20, 2017

#Pseudogenes that might have saved us!
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120604155554.htm?fb_ref=.T829TjfxGmI.like&fb_source=home_oneline Interesting link to infectious disease for pseudo-siglecs 13 & 17

QT:{{”
“”In a small, restricted population, a single mutation can have a big effect, a rare allele can get to high frequency,” said senior author Ajit Varki, MD, professor of medicine and cellular and molecular medicine and co-director of the Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny at UC San Diego. “We’ve found two genes that are non-functional in humans, but not in related primates, which could have been targets for bacterial pathogens particularly lethal to newborns and infants. Killing the very young can have a major impact upon reproductive fitness. Species survival can then depend upon either resisting the pathogen or on eliminating the target proteins it uses to gain the upper hand.”

In this case, Varki, who is also director of the UC San Diego Glycobiology Research and Training Center, and colleagues in the United States, Japan and Italy, propose that the latter occurred. Specifically, they point to inactivation of two sialic acid-recognized signaling receptors (siglecs) that modulate immune responses and are part of a larger family of genes believed to have been very active in human evolution.

Working with Victor Nizet, MD, professor of pediatrics and pharmacy, Varki’s group had previously shown that some pathogens can exploit siglecs to alter the host immune responses in favor of the microbe. In the latest study, the scientists found that the gene for Siglec-13 was no longer part of the modern human genome, though it remains intact and functional in chimpanzees, our closest evolutionary cousins. The other siglec gene — for Siglec-17 — was still expressed in humans, but it had been slightly tweaked to make a short, inactive protein of no use to invasive pathogens.”
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The Weird Business Behind a Trendy “Anti-Aging” Pill | WIRED

March 13, 2017

https://www.wired.com/2016/07/confused-elysiums-anti-aging-drug-yeah-fda/