Posts Tagged ‘pseudogene’

pseudogenes that might have saved us !

March 20, 2017

#Pseudogenes that might have saved us!
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120604155554.htm?fb_ref=.T829TjfxGmI.like&fb_source=home_oneline Interesting link to infectious disease for pseudo-siglecs 13 & 17

QT:{{”
“”In a small, restricted population, a single mutation can have a big effect, a rare allele can get to high frequency,” said senior author Ajit Varki, MD, professor of medicine and cellular and molecular medicine and co-director of the Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny at UC San Diego. “We’ve found two genes that are non-functional in humans, but not in related primates, which could have been targets for bacterial pathogens particularly lethal to newborns and infants. Killing the very young can have a major impact upon reproductive fitness. Species survival can then depend upon either resisting the pathogen or on eliminating the target proteins it uses to gain the upper hand.”

In this case, Varki, who is also director of the UC San Diego Glycobiology Research and Training Center, and colleagues in the United States, Japan and Italy, propose that the latter occurred. Specifically, they point to inactivation of two sialic acid-recognized signaling receptors (siglecs) that modulate immune responses and are part of a larger family of genes believed to have been very active in human evolution.

Working with Victor Nizet, MD, professor of pediatrics and pharmacy, Varki’s group had previously shown that some pathogens can exploit siglecs to alter the host immune responses in favor of the microbe. In the latest study, the scientists found that the gene for Siglec-13 was no longer part of the modern human genome, though it remains intact and functional in chimpanzees, our closest evolutionary cousins. The other siglec gene — for Siglec-17 — was still expressed in humans, but it had been slightly tweaked to make a short, inactive protein of no use to invasive pathogens.”
“}}

Pseudogene derived chimeric CEL-HYB protein

March 14, 2017

Recombined allele of..lipase gene CEL & its #pseudogene CELP confers susceptibility to..pancreatitis
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ng.3249.html CEL-HYB chimera

Genome expansion via lineage splitting and genome reduction in the cicada endosymbiont Hodgkinia

February 13, 2017

Genome expansion via lineage splitting…in the cicada endosymbiont Hodgkinia http://www.PNAS.org/content/112/33/10192.abstract Host lifecycle partially enables split

Eat, Pray, Latin – The New Yorker

August 19, 2016

Eat, pray, #Latin
http://www.NewYorker.com/culture/cultural-comment/eat-pray-latin “An undead language, a ghost shadowing…our words, a zombie…in sentences,” viz pseudolanguage!

Pseudoenzyme – Proteopedia, life in 3D

August 2, 2015

QT:{{”
Pseudoenzymes are proteins that cannot catalyze chemical reactions despite being clearly related structurally to functioning enzymes. Many enzyme families contain inactive members. For example, a number of human kinases lack at least one of the key amino acids necessary for catalysis of phosphate transfer [1]. Often pseudoenzymes still have biological roles, albeit non-catalytic. Some assist true enzymes in obtaining functional folds, some server as platforms for other proteins to interact, and some are escorts for proteins [2][3]. “}}

http://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/Pseudoenzyme

New lives for old: evolution of pseudoenzyme function illustrated by iRhoms : Abstract : Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology

August 2, 2015

– pseudoenzyme

http://www.nature.com/nrm/journal/v13/n8/abs/nrm3392.html

Genome-wide identification of pseudogenes capable of disease-causing gene conversion. – PubMed – NCBI

August 2, 2015

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16671097

The structure, function and evolution of proteins that bind DNA and RNA : Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology : Nature Publishing Group

June 10, 2015

http://www.nature.com/nrm/journal/v15/n11/full/nrm3884.html

NATURE REVIEWS MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY | ANALYSIS
William H. Hudson
& Eric A. Ortlund
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 15, 749–760 (2014) doi:10.1038/nrm3884

BRAF pseudogene and cancer development

April 17, 2015

BRAF #Pseudogene Functions as a Competitive Endogenous RNA; [Shows it] induces Lymphoma [after alteration, in mice]
http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(15)00244-5

Cell. 2015 Apr 9;161(2):319-32. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.043. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

Karreth FA1, Reschke M1, Ruocco A1, Ng C1, Chapuy B2, Léopold V1, Sjoberg M3, Keane TM3, Verma A4, Ala U1, Tay Y1, Wu D5, Seitzer N1, Velasco-Herrera Mdel C3, Bothmer A1, Fung J1, Langellotto F6, Rodig SJ7, Elemento O4, Shipp MA2, Adams DJ3, Chiarle R8, Pandolfi PP9.

Abstract
Research over the past decade has suggested important roles for pseudogenes in physiology and disease. In vitro experiments
demonstrated that pseudogenes contribute….

Circle of life

November 15, 2014

the "circle of life"

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982214001547#

Volume 24, Issue 6, pR238–R240, 17 March 2014

Evolution: Dynamics of De Novo Gene Emergence

Rafik Neme
Diethard Tautz

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.02.016