Posts Tagged ‘brain’

Breaking Into The Brain | Chemical & Engineering News

September 22, 2017

Breaking Into the #Brain
http://CEN.ACS.org/articles/92/i2/Breaking-Brain.html Contrasts potential for drug discovery in neuro-diseases v #cancer (which is “easier”)

interesting brain v cancer contrast

Chips Off the Old Block: Computers Are Taking Design Cues From Human Brains – The New York Times

September 22, 2017

Computers Are Taking Design Cues From…Brains
https://www.NYTimes.com/2017/09/16/technology/chips-off-the-old-block-computers-are-taking-design-cues-from-human-brains.html Bio-inspired computing, or the connection machine redux HT @EricTopol

Evaluation Of Chromatin Accessibility In Prefrontal Cortex Of Schizophrenia Cases And Controls | bioRxiv

July 31, 2017

Eval of Chromatin Accessibility [via #ATACSeq] in DLPFC of SCZ Cases/Ctrls, by @JulienBryois et al.
http://www.BiorXiv.org/content/early/2017/05/25/141986 List of cQTLs

A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development

June 19, 2017

A…transcriptional map of primate (macaque) #brain development http://www.Nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature18637.html Gene expression changes more rapidly before birth
Nature (2016) doi:10.1038/nature18637

Mind the gaps: The holes in your brain that make you smart

June 10, 2017

Mind the gaps: The holes in your brain…make you smart
https://www.NewScientist.com/article/mg23331180-300-mind-the-gaps-the-holes-in-your-brain-that-make-you-smart/ Contrasts connectivity from graphs vs large-scale topology

Intersection of diverse neuronal genomes and neuropsychiatric disease: The Brain Somatic Mosaicism Network | Science

May 15, 2017

The #Brain #Somatic Mosaicism Network
http://science.ScienceMag.org/content/356/6336/eaal1641 Long lifespan of neurons accentuates impact of individual somatic mutations

QT:{{”
Neuropsychiatric disorders have a complex genetic architecture. Human genetic population-based studies have identified numerous heritable sequence and structural genomic variants associated with
susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disease. However, these germline variants do not fully account for disease risk. During brain development, progenitor cells undergo billions of cell divisions to generate the ~80 billion neurons in the brain. The failure to accurately repair DNA damage arising during replication,
transcription, and cellular metabolism amid this dramatic cellular expansion can lead to somatic mutations. Somatic mutations that alter subsets of neuronal transcriptomes and proteomes can, in turn, affect cell proliferation and survival and lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. The long life span of individual neurons and the direct relationship between neural circuits and behavior suggest that somatic mutations in small populations of neurons can significantly affect individual neurodevelopment. The Brain Somatic Mosaicism Network has been founded to study somatic mosaicism both in neurotypical human brains and in the context of complex neuropsychiatric disorders.” “}}

New Brain Insights from Cochlear Implants » American Scientist

March 5, 2017

#Brain Insights from Cochlear Implants
http://www.americanscientist.org/blog/pub/new-brain-insights-from-cochlear-implants Soundtracks simulating the voice of implant based on 1 sided deaf patients

QT:{{”
An additional insight provided by single-sided deaf patients is that they allow us, for the first time, to objectively determine the “voice” of an implant. That’s because these patients can compare how speech sounds through their cochlear implant with what they hear in their normal-hearing ear.”
“}}

Building a Brain in the Lab – Scientific American

January 30, 2017

Building a Brain in the Lab
https://www.ScientificAmerican.com/article/building-a-brain-in-the-lab/ Nice summary of the development of organoids & their promise for personalized treatments

The Brain That Couldn’t Remember – The New York Times

August 13, 2016

The #Brain That Couldn’t Remember
http://www.NYTimes.com/2016/08/07/magazine/the-brain-that-couldnt-remember.html Fight over the ownership of HM’s highlights issues in consent HT @FearLoathingBTX

Cell lineage analysis in human brain using endogenous retroelements. – PubMed – NCBI

May 7, 2016

Cell-lineage analysis in human #brain using endogenous retroelements http://www.cell.com/neuron/abstract/S0896-6273(14)01137-4 Tracing L1 insertions w/ #singlecell sequencing

Using single cell WGS of 16 neuronal cells the authors investigated two somatic insertions of L1Hs elements in an adult human brain. Using these results the authors infer that L1 somatic insertions are infrequent and ALUs and SVAs somatic retrotransposition are extremely rare. Assessing two L1Hs insertions in 32 samples across different regions of this same adult brain, they found that while one insertion was spatially restricted (2x1cm region), the other was found across all samples of the adult brain (but not found in other tissues such as Heart, Lung, etc.). The more restricted one (L1Hs#1) is inferred to have happened during the Fetal stage (first trimester) while the broader one happened earlier, approximately 2 weeks
post-fertilization. Overall the paper is clear, concise, and simple. It answers an interesting biological question: Can retrotransposition be used as a marker of cell clonal expansion? It does, although the retrotransposition frequency is very small and SNVs might support better results for the same analysis due to their higher frequency..