Posts Tagged ‘brain’

Intersection of diverse neuronal genomes and neuropsychiatric disease: The Brain Somatic Mosaicism Network | Science

May 15, 2017

The #Brain #Somatic Mosaicism Network
http://science.ScienceMag.org/content/356/6336/eaal1641 Long lifespan of neurons accentuates impact of individual somatic mutations

QT:{{”
Neuropsychiatric disorders have a complex genetic architecture. Human genetic population-based studies have identified numerous heritable sequence and structural genomic variants associated with
susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disease. However, these germline variants do not fully account for disease risk. During brain development, progenitor cells undergo billions of cell divisions to generate the ~80 billion neurons in the brain. The failure to accurately repair DNA damage arising during replication,
transcription, and cellular metabolism amid this dramatic cellular expansion can lead to somatic mutations. Somatic mutations that alter subsets of neuronal transcriptomes and proteomes can, in turn, affect cell proliferation and survival and lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. The long life span of individual neurons and the direct relationship between neural circuits and behavior suggest that somatic mutations in small populations of neurons can significantly affect individual neurodevelopment. The Brain Somatic Mosaicism Network has been founded to study somatic mosaicism both in neurotypical human brains and in the context of complex neuropsychiatric disorders.” “}}

New Brain Insights from Cochlear Implants » American Scientist

March 5, 2017

#Brain Insights from Cochlear Implants
http://www.americanscientist.org/blog/pub/new-brain-insights-from-cochlear-implants Soundtracks simulating the voice of implant based on 1 sided deaf patients

QT:{{”
An additional insight provided by single-sided deaf patients is that they allow us, for the first time, to objectively determine the “voice” of an implant. That’s because these patients can compare how speech sounds through their cochlear implant with what they hear in their normal-hearing ear.”
“}}

Building a Brain in the Lab – Scientific American

January 30, 2017

Building a Brain in the Lab
https://www.ScientificAmerican.com/article/building-a-brain-in-the-lab/ Nice summary of the development of organoids & their promise for personalized treatments

The Brain That Couldn’t Remember – The New York Times

August 13, 2016

The #Brain That Couldn’t Remember
http://www.NYTimes.com/2016/08/07/magazine/the-brain-that-couldnt-remember.html Fight over the ownership of HM’s highlights issues in consent HT @FearLoathingBTX

Cell lineage analysis in human brain using endogenous retroelements. – PubMed – NCBI

May 7, 2016

Cell-lineage analysis in human #brain using endogenous retroelements http://www.cell.com/neuron/abstract/S0896-6273(14)01137-4 Tracing L1 insertions w/ #singlecell sequencing

Using single cell WGS of 16 neuronal cells the authors investigated two somatic insertions of L1Hs elements in an adult human brain. Using these results the authors infer that L1 somatic insertions are infrequent and ALUs and SVAs somatic retrotransposition are extremely rare. Assessing two L1Hs insertions in 32 samples across different regions of this same adult brain, they found that while one insertion was spatially restricted (2x1cm region), the other was found across all samples of the adult brain (but not found in other tissues such as Heart, Lung, etc.). The more restricted one (L1Hs#1) is inferred to have happened during the Fetal stage (first trimester) while the broader one happened earlier, approximately 2 weeks
post-fertilization. Overall the paper is clear, concise, and simple. It answers an interesting biological question: Can retrotransposition be used as a marker of cell clonal expansion? It does, although the retrotransposition frequency is very small and SNVs might support better results for the same analysis due to their higher frequency..

Bacteria on the Brain – The New Yorker

May 2, 2016

Bacteria on the #Brain
http://www.NewYorker.com/magazine/2015/12/07/bacteria-on-the-brainNice #bioethics discussion of greater allowance for risk in innovative treatment vs research

QT:{{”
…Schrot sent an e-mail to Robert Nelson, a pediatric ethicist and oncologist at the F.D.A., describing the procedure and asking for advice. Nelson replied quickly. “If the product”—Enterobacter—“you plan to use is available to you,” he wrote, in part, “I would suggest you proceed under the strategy of innovative treatment rather than research.”
“}}

Understanding multicellular function and disease with human tissue-specific networks : Nature Genetics : Nature Publishing Group

November 28, 2015

Human tissue-specific #networks by @TroyanskayaLab
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v47/n6/full/ng.3259.html
Brain-specific ones & NetWAS approach for combining #GWAS genes

access all tissue networks including the brain-specific
networks at giant.princeton.edu

A Dying Young Woman’s Hope in Cryonics and a Future

September 15, 2015

A Dying Young Woman’s Hope in Cryonics & a Future http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/us/cancer-immortality-cryogenics.html Glioma sufferer opts for $80K Alcor crowdfunded, brain preservation

QT:{{"

“If the $80,000 fee for neuropreservation seemed steep, they learned that about a third of it pays for medical personnel to be on call for death, while another third is placed in a trust for future revival. The investment income from the trust also pays for storage in liquid nitrogen, which is so cold that it can prevent decay in biological tissue for millenniums.

Some of what they found out gave them pause. Alcor’s antifreeze, once pumped through the blood vessels, transitions into a glassy substance before ice can form and do damage. The process, called vitrification, is similar to that used to store sperm, eggs and embryos for fertility treatments. But that glassy substance has been known to crack, likely causing damage of a different kind.

"}}

His brain, her brain?

May 13, 2015

His brain, her brain? http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6212/915.summary Neurosexism potentially results from multiple testing & only publishing positives

Sign in to read: Brain boosting: It’s not just grey matter that matters – life – 18 February 2015 – Control – New Scientist

March 8, 2015

Brain boosting: It’s not just grey matter that matters http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22530090.600-brain-boosting-its-not-just-grey-matter-that-matters.html Learning involves changes to myelin sheaths, not just synapses