Epigenomic alterations in localized and advanced prostate cancer – Neoplasia

November 27, 2013

Summary for:

“Epigenomic Alterations in Localized and Advanced Prostate Cancer” Lin PC, Giannopoulou E, Park K, Mosquera JM, Sboner A, Tewari AK, Garraway LA, Beltran H, Rubin MA*, Elemento O*. 2013. Epigenomic alterations in localized and advanced prostate cancer. Neoplasia

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23555183

In this paper, the authors take advantage of new advances in reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, a method for measuring DNA methylation patterns genome-wide, with high coverage and
single-nucleotide resolution, to study methylation patterns in prostate cancer. Working with a prostate cancer cohort already studied with DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses, the authors identified
differentially methylated regions (DMRs), comparing the methylation of prostate cancer samples to benign prostate samples. The analysis found an increase in DNA methylation in prostate cancer samples, and that the methylation was more diverse and heterogeneous compared to the patterns of benign samples. Furthermore, it was found that genes near hypermethylated DMRs tended to have decreased expression, while genes near hypomethylated DMRs tended to have increased expression. Additional analyses revealed that breakpoints associated with prostate-cancer-specific deletions, duplications, and translocations tended to be highly methylated in benign prostate tissue. Finally, a study of CpG islands at different stages of prostate cancer (benign vs. PCa vs. CRPC (castration-resistant prostate cancer)) revealed that certain islands become increasingly methylated with disease severity. The authors used this data as the basis for two classification models: one to discriminate between benign prostate tissue and PCa tissue, and another to discriminate between PCa tissue and CRPC tissue. Both models demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity, indicating that CpG islands with high discriminatory power could serve as a diagnostic basis for predicting disease aggressiveness. Finally, additional analyses revealed that breakpoints associated with
prostate-cancer-specific deletions, duplications, and translocations tended to be highly methylated in benign prostate tissue.

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